نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد دامغان، ایران
عنوان مقاله [English]
Description of the contribution of Iranians to world civilization and the process of the spread of Iranian culture all over the world is very important for thecontemporary scholars. The Indian subcontinent has been one of the closest geographical destinations for Iranian immigrants.According to historical sources, the gradual migration of Iranian to the Avadh region in the north of the Indian subcontinent and their initial influence in the court of local rulers as well as their access to the political power began from the first half of the twelfth century AH (1134 AH) and lasted to the late thirteenth century AH (1272 AH). Understanding the Iranian culture and the process of the expansion of the Islamic Iranian civilization is very important for this historical research; therefore, the present article intends to answer these questions with a descriptive and analytical approach:
What was the role of Iranian Shiite agents in organizing the political and cultural conditions of the AvadhState?
What strategies have they used to consolidate Iranian-Shiite culture?
In order to achieve the purpose of the study, the geographical location and historical conditions of Avadh before the arrival of the Iranians is studied, then the role of Iranian immigrants as the agents of Mughal Emperorsis considered andtheera of monarchy in Avadh under the auspices of the East India Company and also their influence on politics, culture and civilization is discussed. For example their influence on the evolution of Urdu language and architecture is explained.Due to the geographical importance and historical background of this region, Avadh in the north of the Indian subcontinent was considered as a suitable region to be influenced by Iranian and Shiite culture and civilization.Historical studies have shown that the role of Iranian agents was affected because the active presence and rule of the Iranians in Avadh as the agents and Kings in very synchronize with the weakness of the Mughal dynasty and the growing power of British colonization in the Indian subcontinent.Although the Iranians were able to take advantage of the Mughal's weakness, but there was a great obstacle called Britain, which diminished the influence of the Iranian agents on the culture and civilization of Avadh. British agents confronted the Shiite Iranians by any means, including rumors, accusations, slanders andespionage.Finally, Iranian Agents were able to organize the political situation of the Avadhstateand they could also take an important step to stabilize the situation by suppressing internal riots, due to the weakness of the Mughal government, military and political experience, intelligence and courage, as well as loyal companions.Another result of this study is that the beginning of the Avadhmonarchy was associated with the domination of the East India Company over the Avadh kings. Then, political and military weakness gradually overwhelmed the Avadh government and the British came to dominate the land. It can be concluded that the influence of Iranian agents on the cultural manifestations of Avadhwasdue to their Shiite beliefs and their adherence to the religious customs and had religious aspect. That is why it concludes the construction of Imambareh and Hosseiniyah, glorious Muharram mourning, establishment of seminaries and strengthening of the authority of religious leaders.Butfor the Iranian agents science, art, architecture and the creation of various buildings and roads was also of great importance; so that Lucknow was chosen as the capital after Faizabad and gained more glory than Delhi.Also, due to the Iranian descent of the Nawabs and kings of Avadh, despite the development and growth of Urdu, Persian language and literature still survived and the writing of books in this ancient language continued because of the support of the rulers of Avadh.Despite existing obstacles such as the influence of the East India Company, it can be claimed that, the presence of Iranian agents in the Avadhstateleads to the stabilization of the political system of the Avadh government and the expansion of Shiite thought and the development and promotion of Iranian and Shiite cultural manifestations and examples, strengthening of the political system,as well as the campaign against enemy Aliens.