نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
1 استادیار موزه ملی پژوهشگاه میراث فرهنگی و گردشگری
2 کارشناسی ارشد باستانشناسی دوره اسلامی
عنوان مقاله [English]
Due to the growth and development of research and discoveries of various sciences and the accumulation of information, various scientific disciplines in the world that can be seen, management with various branches is one of the most prominent sciences and is unparalleled. Project management is one of the most important disciplines in the field of management. Based on archaeological findings of lasting material and spiritual heritage, this science has a long and ancient history that can be traced to amazing projects of ancient times such as the pyramids of Egypt, the Great Wall of China, Pasargadae, Persepolis, etc. In project management, executive, supervisory and control operations have logical relationships with each other that are defined and performed to achieve a specific goal or goals. Ancient projects, while glorious that dazzle the human eye and amaze the intellect, are very complex and mysterious in terms of quality, standard, accuracy, intelligence, adaptation, employing a large number of skilled and unskilled manpower from the point of view of engineering and architectural systems. Among this project, the tomb of Cyrus the Great as a landmark of the Pasargadae complex in the Persian civilization and in the oldest place of the Achaemenid period has a special place. The true value of this historical, archeological and cultural monument, which dates back to nearly two thousand five hundred years, is that, despite the successive destruction of the foreign invaders of this land, the violent erosive factors of nature as the first symbol of the ancient projects of ancient Iran it still stands strong and should be better known. In the morphological autopsy of this 2500-year-old tomb and with the aim of analyzing its archaeological data from the perspective of project management processes, we will use reverse engineering techniques and methods. Utilizing the project life cycle diagram, we would model and monitor the tomb in a comparative analogy. This comparative analogy tangiblely confirms, proves and accentuate the knowledge and thinking ability of engineers, architects and senior managers of ancient Iranian projects, including the designers and executors of Pasargadae projects, including the index structure of the tomb. The project life cycle is the same as the production function input (INPUT) and output (OUTPUT) function cycles after system processes. In the project management life cycle, INPUT was considered as the initial phase of the project and OUTPUT was considered as the final phase, whose systemic processes are subject to planning, executive (partial and total), guidance, monitoring and control processes. The project management life cycle is prepared and adjusted by the experienced and experienced team as the most important and prior managerial-executive work of the project so that the project or projects will be executed and completed on time and with the expected operating costs. Unplanned projects are doomed to failure from a project management perspective. Analysis of the tomb structure in the project management life cycle can be inferred using reverse engineering methods and techniques. In this cycle, tomb project management processes such as construction goal, location and delimitation, site design, architectural design, identification of specialized and non-specialized activities, supply of materials and resources, allocation of resources to activities, decoration design, organization definition and workflow based on the ruling administrative system, phases, preparation of project schedule or schedule, wages and payments, cost control system, etc. are well seen and defined. According to this cycle, the all-stone structure of the tomb was efficiently designed, executed and operated with full stability and coherence for several thousand years. This structure, as detailed, is the safest and most stable structure of the Achaemenid era in the Pasargadae project.
The most complete structure that survived almost 2,500 years in the complex of structures in the face of natural and unnatural events in the history of this land is the tomb. Achaemenid kings performed their coronation ceremonies in this place. After the Achaemenid period, the position of Pasargadae faded. In the Islamic period, due to the lack of records and documents of the original identity of the tomb, this building was attributed to the tomb of Solomon's Mother and it was called Solomon's Mother Martyrdom venue. (The ancient people, based on their beliefs, considered the construction of large stone buildings like this tomb to be out of human power, and attributed their construction to jinns, who served Solomon for difficult tasks.) During the Atabakans of Persia, Pasargadae and Persepolis gained importance again and even Persia and Iran were called "King Solomon". In the Atabakan period, using the columns and stones of the palaces, a mosque was built around the tomb and an altar was carved on the south wall of the tomb room. (Sami: pp. 33-37).