عنوان مقاله [English]
The position of European political envoys in explaining the political personality of Shah Abbas I (Case study of Figueroa)
Shah Abbas I is known as an influential kingdom in the history of Iran. To get acquainted with the way of governing in pre-modern Iran, it is necessary to know the successful and unsuccessful patterns of governance. Since court chroniclers have gone to extremes with the king of the time, and what they say is to the ruler's liking, the existence of non-court sources is useful for understanding the ruler's policies. Don Garcia de Silvay Figueroa, the Spanish ambassador to the court of Shah Abbas I, is a keen and experienced figure who had held military and administrative positions in the Spanish government until the age of 60. This study aims to analyze the data of Figueroa in his travelogue to answer the question of what was the political personality of Shah Abbas I from Figueroa's point of view?
Regardless of the deficiencies of Figueroa's travelogue, the frequency of the data in this work on the political personality of Shah Abbas confirms that Figueroa's descriptions are relatively accurate and consistent with reality, and can accurately explain the political achievements of Shah Abbas. In other words, it can be assumed that Figueroa's description of Shah Abbas's political personality corresponds with the political achievements of Shah Abbas I.
Figueroa, while accurately describing the appearance of the king, such as his clothes, hat, and body, refers in more detail to the political personality of Shah Abbas throughout his travelogue, so that through these data, various areas of behavior, speech, and He realized his political thought. From the very beginning of the ambassador's arrival in Iran, the manner in which he was received and the necessary facilities provided to him and his companions by the order of the Shah indicated special diplomatic etiquette, which the Shah of Iran welcomed by using the ambassador and using a special method of showing the ambassador's gifts, Completed before Meet the king. During the meeting with the ambassador, creating a friendly atmosphere, addressing the King of Spain as a brother and at the same time the Shah's response and his defense of Iranian interests and notifying the other party's shortcomings were among Shah Abbas's negotiation skills, of which Figueroa Has mentioned them.
In domestic politics, too, he deals with the Shah's efforts to subdue rulers who previously considered themselves independent and did not give much credence to the central government. The rulers of Lar and the Zolghadr dynasty in Persia were among those rulers who, after overthrowing them and appointing new rulers loyal to the king, were able to implement their policies in these areas and the Persian Gulf. The Shah's other policy, which led to commercial prosperity and economic opening in the country, was ideological tolerance. Although the Shah considered himself a Shiite and a follower of Imam Ali (AS), he treated the converts peacefully and provided the necessary conditions and facilities for their commute and residence in Iran, so merchants and clerics from different nations were present in the capital.
Another issue that was not unrelated to Shah Abbas's political positions and was a tool for his policies was the Shah's war strategies and tactics. According to Figueroa, Shah Abbas, despite equipping the Iranian army with new weapons, made good use of the methods of his predecessors, such as the scorched earth method, War and escape tactics, and very fast strikes and retreats. The result was important to him. He used every means to gain an advantage over an opponent like the Ottomans who had more troops.
Keywords: Shah Abbas I, Safavid, political figure, Figueroa, the Spanish ambassador