نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
1 دکتری رشته پژوهش هنر، دانشکده هنر، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، نویسنده مسئول تهران، ایران.
2 دانشیار گروه کارگردانی نمایش، دانشکده هنر، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران.
عنوان مقاله [English]
Mourning rituals are one of the most rooted rituals in the world. In pre-Islamic Iran, these rites originated from the ancient rituals of Siavash, and with the advent of Islam and the decline of Siavash's rites, the annual mourning of Muharram began to expand. Due to the continuity and survival of these rituals, the historical course of these rituals has always been of interest to researchers. The present study, focusing on the first periods of the emerge of Islamic mourning rituals, before the unified Safavid government, seeks to answer the question of what Social and political issues have been involved and influential in the formation, expansion and evolution of Islamic mourning rituals in this period? The research method is historical-analytical and the initial result indicates that in this period, mourning rituals, under the influence of social and political conditions, changed in terms of content and structure; In terms of content, history replaced myth, and in terms of ritual structure, the grounds for narrative forms in mourning, such as “Maghtal khani” and “Marsiye khani” and “Roze khani” were provided.
For political and ideological reasons, Iranians combined Shiite thought with Iranian cultural contexts. The legacy of the Siavashan rituals soon adapted to the conditions under the oppression of the Shiites and took on an Islamic color and flavor in the martyrdom of the Shiite fighters. Al-Buwayh is the first Shiite government in Iran, and this historical period is the beginning of the emergence of official mourning rituals with Islamic content. Thus, the first stage of the evolution of Iranian mourning rituals in this period took place: In this period, "the transformation of mythical content into historical content" took place. It is noteworthy that, although the content of the mourning changed, the components and elements of Siavash's mourning rituals were repeated in full. This indicates the unconscious action of society in preserving and perpetuating ritual demonstrations, and giving society priority to ritual behavior.During the rule of the Seljuk Turks, who were Sunni, there was of course no official support for Shiite mourning rituals, but at the same time there was no serious prohibition or scope. Probably during this period, ritual mourning, which had previously been mainly in the form of demonstrations and rallies, was often limited to mourning in mosques and places of worship. The limitation of place, which is a direct result of the government's lack of official support for the rituals, played a significant role in the evolution of the form of the mirrors and paved the way for the growth of another branch of mourning based on "narration" which later culminated in " Roza Khani ". During the Mongol rule, due to the lack of resources on Iranian mourning rituals, one can only be sure of the spread of "lamentation" and "Maqtal writing”(Books recounting the death of revered Muslim). Because it must be due to the spread of static mourning and the need to emphasize the narrators or Roze khani.
On the other hand, the evolutionary process of "lamentation" and "Maqtal "during the rule of the Sunni caliphate shows the originality of individual creations in Iranian culture and history; Between the Shiite rule of Diyalameh and the Safavids, where Shiite rituals continued to thrive on the ups and downs of restrictions, composing poems and narrating historical news was probably a safer practice than holding overt Shiite rituals.